Field Methods

North Indicator

True north (14 degrees declination) (USGS Quadrangle Map: Mud Creek, Colorado, 7.5 minute, 1979.


Grid rotated 2.3762 degrees counter clockwise around 'Dillard Gate Point': UTM Zone 12, 707583 mE/ 4135275 mN/ 1809.12 vertical datum. NAD83.

Mapping Techniques

Mapping at the site was conducted with a Topcon GTS-303 total station surveying instrument and data collector. However, the setting in of Datums 1 and 2 was accomplished with a Lietz one-minute transit, because this initial work required an instrument with a compass in order to establish a baseline oriented to north. Due to this handheld method, grid north is rotated 2.3762 counterclockwise around a point established on the south gate to Jane Dillardメs driveway, north of 5MT10647. The primary datum (Datum 1) is 3m south-southeast of the Great Kiva at 5MT10647. The coordinates of this datum were set at 1400N, 500E, 100 above datum (meters); these numbers were large enough to ensure that the grid for this site could be extended and used for mapping and excavations at all sites within the Indian Camp Ranch Development without necessitating the use of negative coordinates or elevations on any site. Datum 2 (and backsite) was set 25 m northwest of the Great Kiva at 5MT10647 with coordinates of 1426.0909N, 465.5016E, 100.47 above datum. Datum 6 was set at the south end of the roomblock at site 5MT2032 on the ridge south of Jane Dillardメs house. The coordinates of Datum 6 were set at 1423.8648N, 203.1950E, 110.90 above datum. Datums 1, 2, and 6 are rebar stakes mounted in concrete, all three were left in place at the end of the Basketmaker Communities Project to facilitate future orientation to the projectメs grid. In all, 69 primary mapping datums were set in as part of the Basketmaker Communities Project. One to three primary datums were set at each site. All other datums were set along roadsides and driveways to tie specific sites into the overall project grid. Most of the mapping at the Hatch sites was done using mapping datums 56 through 60.

Clearing of Vegetation

The area was denuded by the Indian Camp Ranch ranch manager during winter wheat plowing prior to excavtion.


All excavation units were backfilled and contoured to the surrounding landscape using a Skid Steer. All other equipment and debris from excavation were removed from the site.

Surface Indications

The surface signature of the site includes a disturbed rubble mound, a depresion, and an artifact scatter. The rubble mound and midden were recorded as features during the 1991 documentation of the site. In 2015, 1200 square meters of the site was imaged with an RM15 resistance meter to identify buried pit structures. No buried structures were identified.

Modern Ground Surface Collections


Treatment of Disturbed Areas

In February 1986, the site experienced moderate mechanical activity that destroyed the roomblock and disturbed the surface deposits across the site. Both prior to and since the 1986 excavations, the site has been plowed annually for winter wheat production.

Areas Disturbed by Crow Canyon

Crow Canyon staff parked along the two track road through the site during field work. Small vegetation and brush removed from excavation areas but trees were avoided. Backdirt associated with screening stations was piled beside excavation units to protect

Areas and Percent Damaged by Vandals

Though not mentioned in the 1986 excavation notes of the Hatch Complex by Richard McClellan and other local artifact hunters, Site 5MT10684 was definitely impacted during their excavation of sites to the south (5MT2037, 5MT10686, and 5MT10687). Testing p

Artifacts Not Collected

The trench fill was visually screened and diagnostic artifacts were collected. All other sediments: post-occupation fill, construction deposits, and midden were screened through 1/4" mesh. Uncollected feature fill and deposits within 10 cm of structure floors were screened through 1/8" fill. Construction stones and large ground stone were analyzed in the field and reburied in place.

Types of Surfaces Recognized

Only prepared floors or native sediment floors were designated as structure surfaces. Upper use surfaces in structures were identified as separate strata and all artifacts associated with them point located. Surfaces were designated in extramural areas when associated with features and/or pit structures.

How Artifact-Surface Associations Were Defined

Artifacts found directly on a surface or resting on an object that was in direct contact with a surface were interpreted as surface-associated artifacts. Artifacts that rested within 10 cm above a structure surface were considered to be possibly associated with the surface. All surface maps show both the surface-associated artifacts and those that were possibly associated with the surface. They can be distinguished from one another by their provenience designation (PD) numbers.

Tree-Ring Sampling


Archaeomagnetic Sampling


Archaeobotanical (Flotation) Sampling

Flotation samples were routinely collected from contexts containing insitu burned organic material. These contexts including ashy midden deposits. Standard samples were 1 liter, but smaller samples were collected where limited cultural deposit were encountered and larger samples (2 liter or 3 liter) samples were collected where high plant diversity contexts were encountered. Modern plant and animal disturbances were avoided when sampling. Individual samples, such as visible charred maize kernels, were recovered during excavating or screening, and sent in as a vegetal sample.

Pollen Sampling

Pollen samples were collected from various contexts. Modern ground control samples were collected to contextualize pollen variation in prehistoric contexts and to identify modern pollen contaminates. Control samples were collected from three environmental contexts: old growth pinion and juniper forest on Indian Camp Ranch lot 5, a chained and windrowed setting on lot 6, and a plowed field on lot 20. During excavation possible extramural surfaces and structure floors were sampled. Samples came from sealed contexts (pit features and floors). Some samples were collected in curation grade zip lock bags and treated with four drops of alcohol to suppress mold growth. Other samples were placed in manilla envelopes and sealed and allowed to dry naturally. Pollen grains were separated and concentrated from sediment samples at the Palynology Laboratory, Texas A&M University, College Station, Texas, utilizing protocols developed and tested by Dr. Vaughn Bryant, Jr.

Other Sampling

Constant Volume Samples were collected from structure floors, pit features, and extramural spaces to identify micro-artifacts associated with various activities. These samples were standard 3 liter soils samples, water screened through 1/16ヤ mesh. Two constant volume samples were taken from every quarter structure or every two square meters of exposed floor. In extramural areas, two samples were taken from every 2x2 m extramural unit from fill in contact with the prehistoric ground surface. Constant volume samples were collected from pit features to determine associated activities.

Approximately 40 carbonized botanical annual samples from Basketmaker Communities Project excavations and testing were dated with Accelerated Mass Spectrometry (AMS). The Dry Ridge site produced two samples. Samples were processed and calibrated by Beta Analytic Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory, Miami, Florida