Structure 102, aboveground kiva

About this Structure

General Location

Block 100, north end of site, just west of drainage.

Specific Location

Below Arbitrary Unit 112, in approximately the center of the excavated portion of the east "wing" of Block 100. Between Structures 107 and 108; south of Structures 104-106.

Interpretive Type

Not assigned.

Structure Use

Features within this structure are typical of Pueblo III kivas in this region (formal hearth, six pilasters, benches, southern recess, sipapu, deflector, ventilator system, bench-face niches), so it is inferred that this structure was probably used in the same ways that other small, Pueblo III kivas in this area were used (in general, for domestic purposes and household-level rituals). A substantial amount of refuse (including many usable items) was found on the floor; however, it is not clear how many or which artifacts were associated with the use of the structure. Many artifacts were also found in a stratum of naturally deposited sediment that rested on the floor and in a stratum of burned roof fall above that sediment. Because this structure might have seen some postabandonment use, it is risky to make inferences about kiva use on the basis of the artifacts found on or near the floor. For example, in several instances, sherds from a reconstructible vessel that was found on the floor were recovered in the naturally deposited sediment above the floor and also in burned roof fall, which casts doubt on the orginal provenience of these vessels and so other artifacts on the floor as well. Portions of two different vessels (Vessels 44 and 81) were found on or near the floor and in the roof fall of Structure 107, as well as in naturally deposited sediment below roof fall in Structure 102. Portions of Vessel 25 were found in the upper fill of Structure 102, in floor features, roof fall, and upper fill of Structure 107, in Feature 25 (niche) of Structure 116 (corner room), and on the floor and in the fill of Structure 105 (storage room). It is not possible to determine how these sherds came to be distributed in those contexts, but one might infer that this distribution is evidence that those structures (along with Structure 101, which is connected to Structure 107 by a doorway) were occupied by one residence group. The data could also be interpreted as evidence of ritual distribution of these sherds, as evidence of a violent abandonment event in which vessels became broken and scattered, or any combination of the above. The distribution of sherds also strongly suggests that the structures listed were all still in use just before the kiva suite was abandoned.


Numerous artifacts were left in the structure at abandonment; however, it is not clear if the abandoned structure was used for some purpose or purposes after it was abandoned and additional artifacts were deposited during this use. The evidence of abandonment and postabandonment activities in this structure is similar to that observed in Structure 108, the kiva adjacent to the east. However, the abandonment of Structure 108 was accompanied by the deposition of at least one human body, the bones of which became disarticulated as a result of human actions. The contexts, depositional environments, and condition of human remains in other structures in this part of Block 100 (Structures 101, 105, 107, 116, and 118), and of scattered remains found on a bench surface and in the roof fall and wall fall of Structure 102 itself, suggest that abandonment of all of these structures was associated with a violent event in which at least some of the residents of the structures were killed and were not formally buried.


A stratum of sediment was, during excavation, interpreted to have been deposited naturally on the kiva floor, although this stratum contains many artifacts. The structure roof was burned, and it collapsed into the structure depression, along with numerous reconstructible vessels, other artifacts, and a few human bones. The remainder of the structure depression filled naturally with collapsed wall debris and sediment.

Excavation Details

No excavation details recorded for this study unit.