Structure 1019, masonry surface structure

About this Structure

General Location

Block 1000, northeast quadrant of site.

Specific Location

Abuts the outside of the site-enclosing wall, just over the wall from the courtyard (Nonstructure 1000) and Structure 1002. Above Structure 1008 (Structure 1008 is the lower story, and Structure 1019, the upper, of this two-story building).

Interpretive Type


Structure Use

This structure is the second story of a D-shaped structure abutted to the outside face of the site-enclosing wall. No artifacts are provenienced with this structure, because the floor (and associated materials) and probably the roof had collapsed into Structure 1008 below, and so those materials are provenienced with Structure 1008. It appears that at least some of the objects found in the roof fall in Structure 1008 originated on the floor of Structure 1019 and came down when the floor (and possibly the roof above) collapsed. However, it is difficult to determine which artifacts in that roof fall, or on or near the floor of Structure 1008, were actually associated with the use of this second-story room. For example, a portion of reconstructible Vessel 196 was found on the floor of Structure 1008, but a portion of the same vessel was also found in roof fall, so the vessel clearly did not originate on the floor of Structure 1008, and might have originated on the floor of Structure 1019. Thus, inferences about the use of this structure remain very tentative. The lower-story structure (Structure 1008) was not full height--the ceiling of that room was between 120 cm (approximately 4 ft) and 154 cm (approximately 5 ft) above the floor. Most adults would thus not have been able to stand upright in that structure. It is not known how high the roof was above the floor of the second-story room (Structure 1019); however, it was at least as high as that in the lower-story room, because the tallest section of extant wall in this second-story room is slightly taller than 120 above its floor and no roof beam sockets are visible. Thus, this second-story room might well have been a full-height room. Two firepits were present in the floor of the lower-story room and, although they had both been sealed with adobe sometime during the occupation of that structure, the presence of those (smoke-producing) features indicates that there was at least one, and possibly two, hatchways in the floor of this second-story room that allowed for the escape of smoke as well as movement of people between the stories of this structure. Persons in this room would also have had indirect access into the associated kiva suite (Nonstructure 1000), for there is a doorway through the site-enclosing wall in the lower-story room. Additional possible doorways into this second-story structure were postulated on the basis of indirect evidence such as shaped building stones in wall fall (see Database Map 4158). If these doorways existed, one would have allowed access to the roof of Structure 1002 inside the site-enclosing wall, one would have allowed access either to the roof or to the second-story room of a tower adjacent to the southeast, and the third would have allowed access to the prehistoric ground surface outside the site-enclosing wall (a ladder would have been necessary to use this possible doorway). A burned spot in roof-fall rubble (Structure 1008, Feature 3) suggests that a fire was built on the floor of this second-story room. Artifacts found in roof fall in Structure 1008 (any of which could have originated on the floor of Structure 1019) include two complete pendants, a fragmentary projectile point, a complete metate, a complete lapstone, hundreds of sherds and flakes, more than 600 animal bones and fragments, and two sherd containers. Many of the animal bones were very small fragments and were unidentifiable as to element or species, but a significant number were deer bones. This is noteworthy, because deer bones are very scarce at late Pueblo III sites. It is also potentially significant that there are few deer bones in trash deposits, even at this site, and that these bones are in an abandonment context within a kiva suite that appears to have suffered violent abandonment circumstances. The placement of the structure against the outside face of the site-enclosing wall is a typical defensive construction cross-culturally, as this position (especially from the structure roof) allows a much wider view of the area outside the enclosing wall than would a position from inside the enclosing wall. The structure location and the doorway placement both suggest that security from persons outside the site-enclosing wall was a consideration in the design of the structure. The presence of remains of persons who had received lethal injuries (Human Remains Occurrences 11, 19, 20, and 22) as well as evidence of several additional bodies that had been carelessly deposited in abandonment contexts in this kiva suite is further evidence that defensive structures were a necessity in this village.


The number of usable items left in this structure and in the structure below (Structure 1008), the presence of beams (in roof fall sediment) from the roofs of this structure and the structure below, and the absence of trash in the structure fill all suggest that the two structures that make up this tower were abandoned when the kiva suite was abandoned (this appears to have occurred as the result of a warfare event).


The roof of this structure and the roof of the structure below (Structure 1008) appear to have remained in place for a period of time after the tower was abandoned; the two roofs then collapsed over time, the upper walls of this structure collapsed into the structure below, and additional sediment was deposited.

Excavation Details

No excavation details recorded for this study unit.