Structure 103, subterranean kiva

About this Structure

General Location

South of butte.

Specific Location

4 m east of Structure 104.

Interpretive Type

Living room.

Structure Use

Use of structure inferred to be consistent with other small kivas of this time period--probably some combination of domestic and ritual uses. Features and floor artifacts were not noticeably different from those in other kivas in this area and from this time period. Evidence of structure use includes polishing stones, bone awls, modified and unmodified nonhuman bones, peckingstones, lapstones--approximately 20 ground-stone artifacts in all. Some tools appear to be in stored, rather than in use, locations, such as the two polishing stones on the surface of the southern recess, and the one polishing stone on the surface of Bench 3. Ground-stone artifacts are distributed throughout the structure, but there was one noticeable concentration in the (true) southwest corner of the kiva, and one associated with the hearth. The two peckingstones were found in this general area also. The location of the ground stone indicates a possible grinding activity area. Nonhuman bone was concentrated in the southern recess, and might have been stored there. Flaked lithic debitage was equally distributed on three bench surfaces, but was concentrated between the deflector and the south wall of the kiva, indicating a possible lithic flaking activity area. The few floor and wall features in this kiva are typical for this area and time period--three bench-face niches, a ventilator system, a hearth, and a deflector. No sipapu was detected, but the adobe floor surface was not removed in the area in which sipapus are typically located, so there could be a sipapu that was capped when the floor was plastered or replastered..


Structure abandonment appears to have been effected with the deposition of an adult male body between the deflector and the south wall of the kiva; this is believed to have occurred as a result of an attack in which many of the villagers were killed and that ended the occupation of the village. Some small portion of the roof may have been burned in association with the attack or the structure abandonment, and the roof may have been intentionally collapsed (roof beams are missing).


If the roof was not intentionally collapsed as part of the attack-associated abandonment, it collapsed naturally, along with the upper kiva walls. The structure filled naturally, including some colluvially-deposited refuse from Kiva Suite 103 courtyard or the associated roomblock upslope.

Excavation Details