Field Methods

North Indicator

True north (14 degrees declination) (USGS Quadrangle Map: Mud Creek, Colorado, 7.5 minute, 1979.


Grid rotated 2.3762 degrees counter clockwise around 'Dillard Gate Point': UTM Zone 12, 707583 mE/ 4135275 mN/ 1809.12 vertical datum. NAD83.

Mapping Techniques

Mapping at 5MT2037 was conducted with a Topcon GTS-303 total station surveying instrument and data collector. However, the setting in of Datums 1 and 2 was accomplished with a Lietz one-minute transit, because this initial work required an instrument with a compass in order to establish a baseline oriented to north. Due to this handheld method, grid north is rotated 2.3762 counterclockwise around a point established on the south gate to Jane Dillardメs driveway, north of 5MT10647. The primary datum (Datum 1) is 3m south-southeast of the Great Kiva at 5MT10647. The coordinates of this datum were set at 1400N, 500E, 100 above datum (meters); these numbers were large enough to ensure that the grid for this site could be extended and used for mapping and excavations at all sites within the Indian Camp Ranch Development without necessitating the use of negative coordinates or elevations on any site. Datum 2 (and backsite) was set 25 m northwest of the Great Kiva at 5MT10647 with coordinates of 1426.0909N, 465.5016E, 100.47 above datum. Datum 6 was set at the south end of the roomblock at site 5MT2032 on the ridge south of Jane Dillardメs house. The coordinates of Datum 6 were set at 1423.8648N, 203.1950E, 110.90 above datum. Datums 1, 2, and 6 are rebar stakes mounted in concrete, all three were left in place at the end of the Basketmaker Communities Project to facilitate future orientation to the projectメs grid. In all, 69 primary mapping datums were set in as part of the Basketmaker Communities Project. One to three primary datums were set at each site. All other datums were set along roadsides and driveways to tie specific sites into the overall project grid. Most of the mapping at the Hatch sites was done using mapping datums 56 through 60.

Clearing of Vegetation

The area was denuded by the Indian Camp Ranch ranch manager during winter wheat plowing prior to excavtion.


All excavation units were backfilled and contoured to the surrounding landscape using a Skid Steer. All other equipment and debris from excavation were removed from the site.

Surface Indications

The surface signature of the site includes a bulldozed rubble mound, a disturbed midden, a one meter in diameter burned rock concentration and a 25 m long flattened area surrounded by rock. These features were recorded as a roomblock, midden, thermal feature, and possible plaza during the 1991 documentation of the site. In 2015, CCAC staff imaged 1600 square meters of the site using a Geoscan RM15 resistance meter. No subsurface architecture was located.

Modern Ground Surface Collections


Treatment of Disturbed Areas

In February 1986, the site experienced significant mechanical activity that destroyed two kivas, a roomblock, and a possible plaza and disturbed most of the cultural deposits on the site. The current excavation determined that the kivas and roomblock were excavated with a front end loader, which obliterated all architecture by excavating large pits around the structures before pulling them down. Both prior to and since the 1986 excavations, the site has been plowed annually for winter wheat production.

Areas Disturbed by Crow Canyon

Crow Canyon staff parked along the two track road through the site during field work. Small vegetation and brush removed from excavation areas but trees were avoided. Backdirt associated with screening stations was piled beside excavation units to protect

Areas and Percent Damaged by Vandals

In February 1986, the site experienced significant mechanical activity that destroyed some structures and disturbed most of the cultural deposits on the site. The individuals involved in the disturbance wrote a description and make a sketch (McClellan 198

Artifacts Not Collected

The looted fill was visually screened and diagnostic artifacts were collected. Post-occupation and intact deposits in the midden were screened through 1/4" mesh. Large ground stone was analyzed in the field and reburied in place.

Types of Surfaces Recognized

No occupation surfaces recognized during excavation.

How Artifact-Surface Associations Were Defined

Artifacts found directly on a surface or resting on an object that was in direct contact with a surface were interpreted as surface-associated artifacts. Artifacts that rested within 10 cm above a structure surface were considered to be possibly associated with the surface. All surface maps show both the surface-associated artifacts and those that were possibly associated with the surface. They can be distinguished from one another by their provenience designation (PD) numbers.

Tree-Ring Sampling

All burned and unburned wood specimens that appeared to contain 10 or more rings were collected as tree-ring samples. These samples were collected and securely wrapped in cotton string as promptly as possible after exposure to prevent drying and destruction of the sample. Tree-ring samples were point-located (i.e., the locations were documented both horizontally and vertically).

Archaeomagnetic Sampling


Archaeobotanical (Flotation) Sampling

Flotation samples were routinely collected from contexts containing insitu burned organic material. These contexts including ashy midden deposits. Standard samples were 1 liter, but smaller samples were collected where limited cultural deposit were encountered and larger samples (2 liter or 3 liter) samples were collected where high plant diversity contexts were encountered. Modern plant and animal disturbances were avoided when sampling. Individual samples, such as visible charred maize kernels, were recovered during excavating or screening, and sent in as a vegetal sample.

Pollen Sampling


Other Sampling

Constant Volume Samples were collected from structure floors, pit features, and extramural spaces to identify micro-artifacts associated with various activities. These samples were standard 3 liter soils samples, water screened through 1/16ヤ mesh. Two constant volume samples were taken from every quarter structure or every two square meters of exposed floor. In extramural areas, two samples were taken from every 2x2 m extramural unit from fill in contact with the prehistoric ground surface. Constant volume samples were collected from pit features to determine associated activities.