Field Methods

North Indicator

True north (14 degree declination), USGS Quadrangle map: Woods Canyon, 7.5 minute series, 1965 (photoinspected 1979)


Grid is aligned to true north

Mapping Techniques

Mapping at Albert Porter Pueblo was conducted with a Topcon GTS-303 total station surveying instrument and data collector. However, the setting in of Datums 1 and 2 were accomplished with a Lietz one-minute transit, because this initial work required an instrument with a compass in order to establish a baseline oriented to true north. The primary datum (Datum 1) was set in the tallest portion of the Architectural Block 100 rubble mound. The coordinates of this datum were set at 500N 500E (meters); these numbers were large enough to ensure that the grid for this site could be extended and used for mapping the entire 11.6 acres without necessitating the use of negative coordinates on the site. The elevation of Datum 1 was set at 100 meters, to avoid any possibility of necessitating the use of negative elevations throughout the site. Datum 2 was set in at 594.0247N 500.00E and an elevation of 99.00 meters. Datum 3 was set in at 421.5361N 634.2375E and an elevation of 94.27 meters. Datum 4 was set in at 380.4409N 416.4262E and an elevation of 92.89 meters. Datum 5 was set in at 434.5423N 382.5901E and an elevation of 94.09 meters. The rebar mapping datums were the only items left at the site when fieldwork was completed.

Clearing of Vegetation

Grasses and other small plants were removed in excavated areas. Shrubs were trimmed during placement and removal of the equipment trailer, and during construction of the parking area in the northeastern portion of the site and west of County Road 13.5. No trees were removed or damaged during Crow Canyon's research at the site.


Excavation units were backfilled according to permit stipulations and Crow Canyon Archaeological Center policy. Landscaping fabric was used in the bottom of excavation units to protect surfaces and to mark the extent of Crow Canyon's excavations. The pits and structures were then filled with layers of dirt and rocks as nearly as possible to the original contours of modern ground surface. All Crow Canyon equipment and debris, except for rebar mapping datums, were removed from the site when fieldwork ended in November 2004.

Surface Indications

Intact masonry rooms were indicated by rubble mounds or rock concentrations only in Architectural Blocks 100, 300, 400, 500, 600, 900, and 1100. Throughout Albert Porter Pueblo, kivas were indicated by shallow depressions, some by the absence of rubble, and for some kivas there were no surface indications. Middens were indicated by relatively greater artifact density on modern ground surface, but had been dispersed by plowing activities.

Modern Ground Surface Collections

Artifacts on the modern ground surface were collected from a 3-m diameter "dog leash" in the center of each 20-x-20-m grid on the site. Artifacts on the modern ground surface were collected from each excavation unit.

Treatment of Disturbed Areas

When Crow Canyon's field work began at Albert Porter Pueblo, multiple disturbed areas were visible. Pothunting activities were evident in most architectural blocks, particularly those located in Architectural Blocks 100, 300, and 400.

Areas Disturbed by Crow Canyon

Crow Canyon staff and participants were involved in archaeological excavations at Albert Porter Pueblo for four years, from 2001 to 2004. Crow Canyon's trailer was located in Architectural Block 800 and the portable toilets were located on the northeaster

Areas and Percent Damaged by Vandals

Beginning in the 1950s and continuing into the late 1990s, mechanical equipment was used for agricultural production at Albert Porter Pueblo; the site was moderately disturbed from plowing activities. Plowing ceased on the site when The Archaeological Con

Artifacts Not Collected

All artifacts caught by 1/4-inch-mesh screen (or 1/8-inch-mesh screen for hearth fills) were collected. Architectural rocks such as building blocks, ventilator cover slabs, hatchway covers, and so forth were not collected. In-situ deflector slabs were documented as features and left in place.

Types of Surfaces Recognized

Prepared (constructed) floors; ephemeral use surfaces within structures; outdoor (extramural) use surfaces. All features (except wall features) were inferred to have been associated with a surface of some type; thus, a surface was designated for each feature, regardless of whether a surface was visible.

How Artifact-Surface Associations Were Defined

Artifacts were inferred to be associated with a surface if they contacted the surface or rested on an object that contacted the surface. Artifacts were inferred to be possibly associated with a surface if they were within 5 cm of the surface (if an artifact was within 5 cm of a surface, the elevation of the artifact relative to the surface was recorded).

Tree-Ring Sampling

All burned and unburned wood specimens that appeared to contain 40 or more rings were collected as tree-ring samples. These samples were collected and securely wrapped in cotton string as promptly as possible after exposure to prevent damage to the sample. Tree-ring samples were point-located (i.e., the locations were documented both horizontally and vertically).

Archaeomagnetic Sampling

Archaeomagnetic samples were collected from adobe hearth collars in Structure 107 and 108 (masonry-lined kivas) and were analyzed by Eric Blinman and J. Royce Cox at the Archaeomagnetic Dating Laboratory, Office of Archaeological Studies, Museum of New Mexico. Additionally, archaeomagnetic samples were collected from adobe hearth collars in Structures 112 and 150 (masonry-lined kivas) and were analyzed by Stacey Lengyel at Statistical Research, Inc., Tucson, Arizona.

Archaeobotanical (Flotation) Sampling

Flotation samples were routinely collected from contexts containing burned organic material. These contexts included ashy midden deposits, hearth and firepit fills, ash deposits on kiva floors, and any vegetal material in roof-fall strata. Standard samples were 1 liter, but smaller samples were collected where a smaller cultural deposit was encountered. Modern plant and animal disturbances were avoided when sampling. Individual samples, such as visible charred maize cobs or kernels, were recovered during excavating or screening, and sent in as a vegetal sample.

Pollen Sampling

Pollen samples were collected from contexts thought most likely to yield information about structure use. Thus, samples were collected from sealed contexts on floors (i.e., beneath rocks that were resting on a surface). Control samples were collected from roof-fall and wall-fall debris.

Other Sampling

Ash and burned desposits (i.e., ash from hearths and firepits) were collected for microbotanical and macrobontanical analyses.

Accelerator Mass Spectrometer (AMS) dating was conducted by Beta Analytic Radiocarbon Dating Laboratory, Miami, Floria, on burned bean samples collected from a bin feature in Structure 168, from a burned bean sample collected in Structure 112, and from burned corn kernels collected in Structure 150.