Field Methods

North Indicator

True north (14 degrees declination) (USGS Quadrangle Map: Mud Creek, Colorado, 7.5 minute, 1979.


Grid rotated 2.3762 degrees counter clockwise around 'Dillard Gate Point': UTM Zone 12, 707583 mE/ 4135275 mN/ 1809.12 vertical datum. NAD83.

Mapping Techniques

Mapping at 5MT10719 was conducted with a Topcon GTS-303 total station surveying instrument and data collector. Prior to general mapping, Datums 1 and 2, which oriented grid north for the Basketmaker Communities Project, were laid in with a Lietz one-minute transit. Due to this handheld method, grid north is rotated 2.3762 counterclockwise around a point established on the south gate to Lot 6 driveway, north of 5MT10647. The primary datum (Datum 1) is 3m south-southeast of the Great Kiva at 5MT10647. The coordinates of this datum were set at 1400N, 500E, 100 above datum (meters); these numbers were large enough to ensure that the grid for this site could be extended and used for mapping and excavations at all sites within the Indian Camp Ranch Development without necessitating the use of negative coordinates or elevations on any site. Datum 2 (and backsite) was set 25 m northwest of the Great Kiva at 5MT10647 with coordinates of 1426.0909N, 465.5016E, 100.47 above datum. Datum 6 was set at the south end of the roomblock at site 5MT2032 on the ridge south of Jane Dillardメs house. The coordinates of Datum 6 were set at 1423.8648N, 203.1950E, 110.90 above datum. Datums 1, 2, and 6 are rebar stakes mounted in concrete, all three were left in place at the end of the Basketmaker Communities Project to facilitate future orientation to the projectメs grid. In all, 69 primary mapping datums were set in as part of the Basketmaker Communities Project. An additional primary datum was set at 5MT10719.

Clearing of Vegetation

Small brush and grass was removed from excavation areas. Back dirt from the appropriate screening station was used to backfill each unit when excavation was completed. All backfilling done by hand.


Back dirt from the appropriate screening station was used to backfill each unit when excavation was completed. Most backfilling across the site was done by hand but the pithouse was backfilled using heavy equipment. By the end of the 2012 field season, all excavation units were completely backfilled to match the preexisting topography as much as possible. Dead brush was scattered across the site to obscure excavation areas and stabilize the soil on site. The Indian Camp Ranch site pole was left in place. All equipment and debris from excavation were removed from the site.

Surface Indications

The surface signature of the site includes a scatter of gray ware ceramics and flaked lithics and a burned rock concentration at the center of the site.

Modern Ground Surface Collections

Artifacts were only collected from the surface of excavation units on 5MT10736.

Treatment of Disturbed Areas

The old growth pinion and juniper forest across the site was chained sometime between the 1920s and 1980s. Chained trees were subsequently piled and burned by Archie Hanson during the development of Indian Camp Ranch in the early 1990s. Old Road K, which predates the 1990s, clips the north edge of the site. These areas were generally avoided during excavation.

Areas Disturbed by Crow Canyon

Crow Canyon staff parked along the adjacent gravel driveway during field work. Small vegetation and brush removed from excavation areas but trees were avoided. Backdirt associated with screening stations was piled on plastic beside excavation units to pro

Areas and Percent Damaged by Vandals

The site was chained sometime between the 1920s and 1980s. Chained trees were piled at the edge of the site and subsequently burned by Archie Hanson during the early development of Indian Camp Ranch in the early 1990s. This swath was an early iteration of

Artifacts Not Collected

Post-occupation fill, construction deposits, and midden were screened through 1/4" mesh. Uncollected feature fill and deposits within 10 cm of structure floors were screened through 1/8" fill. Construction stones and large ground stone were analyzed in the field and reburied in place.

Types of Surfaces Recognized

Only prepared floors or native sediment floors were designated as structure surfaces. Upper use surfaces in structures were identified as separate strata and all artifacts associated with them point located. Surfaces were designated in extramural areas when associated with features and/or pit structures.

How Artifact-Surface Associations Were Defined

Artifacts found directly on a surface or resting on an object that was in direct contact with a surface were interpreted as surface-associated artifacts. Artifacts that rested within 10 cm above a structure surface were considered to be possibly associated with the surface. All surface maps show both the surface-associated artifacts and those that were possibly associated with the surface. They can be distinguished from one another by their provenience designation (PD) numbers.

Tree-Ring Sampling

No tree-ring samples collected.

Archaeomagnetic Sampling

No Archaeomagnetic samples collected.

Archaeobotanical (Flotation) Sampling

Flotation samples were routinely collected from contexts containing burned organic material. At 5MT10719, these contexts include solely ashy midden deposits. Standard samples were 1 liter, but smaller samples were collected where limited cultural deposit were encountered and larger samples (2 liter or 3 liter) samples were collected where high plant diversity contexts were encountered. Modern plant and animal disturbances were avoided when sampling. Individual samples, such as visible charred maize kernels, were recovered during excavating or screening, and sent in as a vegetal sample.

Pollen Sampling

No pollen samples taken.

Other Sampling

Steven Schackley, Geoarchaeological XRF Lab, conducted spectrometry analysis of fifteen obsidian samples from the Basketmaker Communities project to determine their source.