Structure 234, subterranean kiva

Features


Bench: not further specified (Feature 1) Top of page
General description
Bench surface likely extending into southern recess; composed of three flat-lying sandstone pieces set into earthen mortar and then partially plastered.
Use history
Bench surface and associated artifacts left in place during final use(s) of Structure 234. Bench used to support pilasters and for storage.
Associated features
Pilaster (Feature 2) and bench (Feature 3).
Excavation procedure
5 cm of fill was left on top of bench surface when edge was initially exposed, and the fill was excavated with this feature until the earthen and stone of the bench was exposed.
Portion excavated
Only that portion that fell within Structure 234, Segment 1.
Horizontal location
South-central portion of Structure 234, Segment 1.
Vertical location
Between 80-82 cm above Structure 234 floor (Surface 1).
Construction
Three sandstone slabs were laid horizontally with mortar and then partially plastered over to create flat bench; most of the plaster has eroded.
Remodeling/ modification
No
Thermal alteration
No
Sooting
No
Sealed
No
Preservation
Good.
Degree of preservation
Sloping surface may have been caused by structure collapse.
Shape in plan view
Actual: 
Inferred: 
Shape in cross section
Actual:  irregular.
Inferred:  unknown.
Shape comments
Dimensions
 
Actual
Complete?
Inferred
Comments
Length
50
No
Measured along front face (southwest-northeast).
Width
39
No
Next to pilaster (northwest-southeast).
Height
No
Depth
No
Stratigraphy
Stratum
Interpretation
Inclusions
Disturbance
Color
Texture

Bench: not further specified (Feature 10) Top of page
General description
Masonry-capped bench.
Use history
Used from inception of structure until structure was abandoned. Used for pilaster support and for storage.
Associated features
Pilaster (Feature 9).
Excavation procedure
Exposed in Segment 4.
Portion excavated
All of feature exposed in Segment 4.
Horizontal location
Segment 4.
Vertical location
Estimated to be about 82 cm above Surface 1.
Construction
Sandstone set in mortar atop earthen bench.
Remodeling/ modification
No
Thermal alteration
No
Sooting
No
Sealed
No
Preservation
Excellent.
Degree of preservation
Shape in plan view
Actual:  unknown.
Inferred:  rectangular.
Shape in cross section
Actual:  irregular.
Inferred: 
Shape comments
Dimensions
 
Actual
Complete?
Inferred
Comments
Length
37
No
Extends north into profile.
Width
10
No
Height
No
Depth
No
Stratigraphy
Stratum
Interpretation
Inclusions
Disturbance
Color
Texture

Pilaster: not further specified (Feature 2) Top of page
General description
Plastered, coursed masonry in mortar; pilaster located at transition from east edge of southern recess (inferred to be present) and bench.
Use history
Pilaster apparently constructed as a roof support when Structure 234 was originally built; portions of the pilaster were repeatedly plastered with 6 layers preserved.
Associated features
Benches (Features 1 and 3).
Excavation procedure
Exposed during the excavation of Structure 234, Segment 1.
Portion excavated
Approximately 70% of pilaster was exposed.
Horizontal location
Southeast portion of Structure 234, Segment 1.
Vertical location
Begins at bench surface and rises at least 74 cm.
Construction
Coursed layers of sandstone set in mortar and then covered with plaster.
Remodeling/ modification
Yes. Replastered several times; 6 layers of plaster preserved.
Thermal alteration
No
Sooting
No
Sealed
No
Preservation
Good.
Degree of preservation
Upper courses collapsed or slumped.
Shape in plan view
Actual:  rectangular.
Inferred: 
Shape in cross section
Actual:  trapezoidal.
Inferred: 
Shape comments
Dimensions
 
Actual
Complete?
Inferred
Comments
Length
66
No
Measured front-to-back.
Width
51
Yes
Measured front edge at bench.
Height
74
No
From bench surface in feature 3 to top stone preserved.
Depth
No
Stratigraphy
Stratum
Interpretation
Inclusions
Disturbance
Color
Texture

Bench: not further specified (Feature 3) Top of page
General description
Bench surface; primarily plastered earth with one portion of sandstone present.
Use history
Bench surface and associated artifacts left in place during final use(s) of Structure 234.
Associated features
Pilaster (Feature 2), bench (Feature 1).
Excavation procedure
5 cm of fill left atop bench when initially encountered; entire portion within segment excavated.
Portion excavated
A small triangular section within Structure 234, Segment 1.
Horizontal location
Along east-central edge of Structure 234, Segment 1.
Vertical location
Approximately 82 cm above Structure 234 floor (Surface 1).
Construction
Plastered earthen edge with at least one piece of sandstone laid flat on bench; transition to bench face characterized by at least 3 courses of masonry.
Remodeling/ modification
No
Thermal alteration
No
Sooting
No
Sealed
No
Preservation
Excellent.
Degree of preservation
Shape in plan view
Actual: 
Inferred: 
Shape in cross section
Actual:  other.
Inferred: 
Shape comments
Small triangular section exposed.
Dimensions
 
Actual
Complete?
Inferred
Comments
Length
47
No
Measured along front edge of bench.
Width
42
No
Measured bench face to southeast along pilaster.
Height
No
Depth
No
Stratigraphy
Stratum
Interpretation
Inclusions
Disturbance
Color
Texture

Hearth (Feature 4) Top of page
General description
Earthen hearth excavated into Surface 1 of Structure 234, roughly circular to oval, later heavily disturbed when the feature was remodeled to become support for slab deflector associated with a new hearth (Feature 6 and Feature 7).
Use history
Appears to have been the original hearth associated with initial construction and use of Structure 234; decommissioned and heavily remodeled and altered to form the support for two large slabs that comprise the deflector associated with final use hearths
Associated features
Deflector (Feature 5).
Excavation procedure
This feature is bisected by two large sandstone slabs set into feature with mortar; that portion falling within Structure 234, Segment 1 was excavated as two separate segments; Segment 1, north of the slabs, and Segment 2, south of the slabs.
Portion excavated
Approximately 85% of feature.
Horizontal location
West-central edge of Structure 234, Segment 1.
Vertical location
Excavated into floor of Structure 234 (Surface 1).
Construction
It appears that this was the original hearth excavated from the floor of Structure 234 when initially constructed; the feature was remodeled into a support for slab deflector, at which time the south edge and base of original feature were extensively re-e
Remodeling/ modification
Thermal alteration
Sooting
No
Sealed
Preservation
Poor.
Degree of preservation
Prehistoric remodeling.
Shape in plan view
Actual:  basin-shaped.
Inferred: 
Shape in cross section
Actual:  irregular.
Inferred:  round.
Shape comments
Dimensions
 
Actual
Complete?
Inferred
Comments
Length
56
Yes
Measured north-south.
Width
42
No
Measured east-west.
Height
No
Depth
32
No
Inferred depth, later reuse of feature may have altered.
Stratigraphy
Stratum
Interpretation
Inclusions
Disturbance
Color
Texture
1
Mixture of ash from hearth and fill and sterile from remodeling into slab deflector (Feature 5) support.
Gray brown.
Silty clay.

Deflector (Feature 5) Top of page
General description
Two massive, tabular sandstone slabs set upright within a pit (Feature 4) and secured in a mortar and adobe/fill matrix.
Use history
The deflector appears to have been associated with the later stages of the use of Structure 234 when a more centrally located hearth was constructed (Features 6 and 7) within Structure 234; presumably, this feature served as deflector until Structure 234
Associated features
Hearths (Features 6 and 7).
Excavation procedure
Exposed during excavation of Structure 234, Segment 1, and during excavation of Structure 234, Feature 4, Segments 1 and 2.
Portion excavated
Approximately the eastern 65-75 percent of deflector.
Horizontal location
West-central edge of Structure 234, Segment 1, within Structure 23, Feature 4.
Vertical location
Constructed into Feature 4, which was excavated in Structure 234 floor surface.
Construction
Hearth (Feature 4) was altered, and additional material was excavated from base of hearth into undisturbed native sediment; several smaller pieces of sandstone were placed within the pit as support, and then two large slabs were inset, and the pit was ref
Remodeling/ modification
No
Thermal alteration
No
Sooting
No
Sealed
No
Preservation
Excellent.
Degree of preservation
Shape in plan view
Actual:  rectangular.
Inferred: 
Shape in cross section
Actual:  rectangular.
Inferred: 
Shape comments
Dimensions
 
Actual
Complete?
Inferred
Comments
Length
64
No
Measured east-west; extends into west profile.
Width
15
Yes
Measured north-south.
Height
60
Yes
Measured as portion extending above floor level.
Depth
No
Stratigraphy
Stratum
Interpretation
Inclusions
Disturbance
Color
Texture

Hearth (Feature 6) Top of page
General description
Earthen and stone-lined hearth excavated from Surface 1 of Structure 234.
Use history
Final hearth used within Structure 234; remodeled from Feature 7; located in approximate center of Structure 234.
Associated features
Deflector (Feature 5).
Excavation procedure
Initially bisected and one half excavated to base to check for internal stratigraphy, none evident, and the remainder of the fill was excavated.
Portion excavated
Entire portion within Structure 234, Segment 2; approximately 75-80 percent of the fill within hearth.
Horizontal location
Within Structure 234, Segment 2; constructed within Feature 7 (original hearth).
Vertical location
Excavated into the floor of Structure 234 (Surface 1).
Construction
Constructed within Feature 7, a hearth, by adding a thick layer of construction material to north edge of hearth, and then lining the southeast and south edge with sandstone slab set in adobe; base of feature shared with earlier hearth (Feature 7).
Remodeling/ modification
Yes. Small application of daub on interior side of hearth around stones appears to have been applied some time after initial feature remodeling.
Thermal alteration
Yes. Charred edges.
Sooting
No
Sealed
No
Preservation
Good.
Degree of preservation
Shape in plan view
Actual:  basin-shaped.
Inferred: 
Shape in cross section
Actual:  unknown.
Inferred:  elliptical.
Shape comments
Dimensions
 
Actual
Complete?
Inferred
Comments
Length
72
Yes
Measured east-west.
Width
48
Yes
Measured north south.
Height
No
Depth
25
Yes
Stratigraphy
Stratum
Interpretation
Inclusions
Disturbance
Color
Texture
1
Ash associated with the last use(s) of hearth prior to structure abandonment.
Charcoal flecks and chunks.
Gray-white.
Fine ash.

Hearth (Feature 7) Top of page
General description
Basin-shaped pit feature.
Use history
This hearth appears to have been constructed sometime after the initial construction and use of Structure 234; Feature 4 appears to have been the first hearth, and was remodeled into a deflector support, presumably at about the same time that Feature 7 wa
Associated features
Deflector (Feature 4).
Excavation procedure
A small window was excavated on north and south edges of feature, cutting through edges of Feature 6 to reveal contour of this earlier hearth.
Portion excavated
Less than 5 percent.
Horizontal location
Structure 234, Segment 2.
Vertical location
Structure 234 (Surface 1).
Construction
Basin-shaped pit was excavated from Structure 234, Surface 1 into undisturbed native sediment, edges appear to then have been plastered.
Remodeling/ modification
Yes. Entire feature later remodeled into Feature 6.
Thermal alteration
Yes. Charred edges.
Sooting
No
Sealed
Yes. By construction of Feature 6
Preservation
Good.
Degree of preservation
Shape in plan view
Actual:  basin-shaped.
Inferred: 
Shape in cross section
Actual:  unknown.
Inferred:  round.
Shape comments
Dimensions
 
Actual
Complete?
Inferred
Comments
Length
86
Yes
Measured east-west.
Width
69
Yes
Measured north-south.
Height
No
Depth
25
Yes
Stratigraphy
Stratum
Interpretation
Inclusions
Disturbance
Color
Texture
1
Construction material used to fashion Feature 6.
Red brown.
Fine.

Pilaster: not further specified (Feature 8) Top of page
General description
Masonry pilaster.
Use history
Constructed to support roof, used until structure was abandoned.
Associated features
Pilasters (Features 2 and 9).
Excavation procedure
Exposed in Segment 3.
Portion excavated
Stones of southwest portion of feature were exposed.
Horizontal location
Segment 3.
Vertical location
Top stone at 96.34 m.
Construction
Coursed sandstone set in mortar, plastered.
Remodeling/ modification
No
Thermal alteration
No
Sooting
No
Sealed
No
Preservation
Excellent.
Degree of preservation
Shape in plan view
Actual:  rectangular.
Inferred: 
Shape in cross section
Actual:  irregular.
Inferred:  rectangular.
Shape comments
Dimensions
 
Actual
Complete?
Inferred
Comments
Length
10
No
Extends north into profile.
Width
42
No
Height
50
No
Depth
No
Stratigraphy
Stratum
Interpretation
Inclusions
Disturbance
Color
Texture

Pilaster: not further specified (Feature 9) Top of page
General description
Masonry pilaster.
Use history
Constructed to support roof, used until structure was abandoned.
Associated features
Bench (Feature 10).
Excavation procedure
Exposed in Segment 4.
Portion excavated
All of the Feature in Segment 4.
Horizontal location
Segment 4.
Vertical location
Atop bench (Feature 10).
Construction
Coursed sandstone set in mortar.
Remodeling/ modification
No
Thermal alteration
No
Sooting
No
Sealed
No
Preservation
Excellent.
Degree of preservation
Shape in plan view
Actual:  rectangular.
Inferred: 
Shape in cross section
Actual:  rectangular.
Inferred: 
Shape comments
Dimensions
 
Actual
Complete?
Inferred
Comments
Length
26
No
Extends south into profile.
Width
46
No
Height
52
No
Depth
No
Stratigraphy
Stratum
Interpretation
Inclusions
Disturbance
Color
Texture