Structure 223, subterranean kiva

Features


Hearth (Feature 1) Top of page
General description
Circular hearth.
Use history
Hearth used for light, heat, and food preparation.
Associated features
None exposed.
Excavation procedure
Segment 2 was excavated to expose a portion of the hearth, the north lip of which was evident in Segment 1; Segment 2 encountered northeastern portion of the hearth and was excavated as a full cut.
Portion excavated
100 percent of the feature within Segment 2 was excavated; this portion probably represents 20 percent (or less) of the entire feature.
Horizontal location
South-central portion of Structure 223 Segment 1; in the majority of Structure 223, Segment 2.
Vertical location
Excavated from Structure 223, Surface 1.
Construction
A pit was excavated from Structure 223, Surface 1 into undisturbed native sediment; the perimeter and interior of the feature were plastered creating a slight collar.
Remodeling/ modification
No
Thermal alteration
Yes. Plaster is fire-blackened as are areas lacking plaster.
Sooting
No
Sealed
No
Preservation
Excellent.
Degree of preservation
Shape in plan view
Actual:  basin-shaped.
Inferred: 
Shape in cross section
Actual: 
Inferred:  round.
Shape comments
Dimensions
 
Actual
Complete?
Inferred
Comments
Length
57
No
65
Measured east-west.
Width
19
No
Measured north-south.
Height
No
Depth
21
No
23
Stratigraphy
Stratum
Interpretation
Inclusions
Disturbance
Color
Texture
1
Ash from last use(s) of hearth.
Charcoal.
Light gray.
Ashy.

Pilaster: not further specified (Feature 2) Top of page
General description
Coursed masonry pilaster.
Use history
Pilaster assumed to have been used to support roof of Structure 223 from time of its initial construction until abandonment.
Associated features
Pilaster (Feature 5) and bench (Feature 7).
Excavation procedure
Exposed during excavation of Backhoe Trench 218. In Segment 2.
Portion excavated
Interior face was exposed.
Horizontal location
Segment 1.
Vertical location
Rests atop bench surface, about 85 cm above Surface 1.
Construction
Coursed masonry atop bench surface, set in mortar, and covered with plaster.
Remodeling/ modification
No
Thermal alteration
Yes. Intact plaster is fire-blackened.
Sooting
No
Sealed
No
Preservation
Good.
Degree of preservation
Upper stones disturbed during backhoe trenching.
Shape in plan view
Actual:  rectangular.
Inferred: 
Shape in cross section
Actual: 
Inferred:  square.
Shape comments
Dimensions
 
Actual
Complete?
Inferred
Comments
Length
49
Yes
Width
No
Height
18
No
Depth
No
Stratigraphy
Stratum
Interpretation
Inclusions
Disturbance
Color
Texture

Wall: other (Feature 3) Top of page
General description
Fully coursed masonry wall built directly atop bench and adjacent to, and flush with pilaster (Feature 2); single to double stone wide wall; function unknown.
Use history
Uncertain; the wall was constructed on the bench surface near the bench face, the absence of plaster, lack of fire-reddening, and the presence of burned roof fall between wall and the upper lining wall of Structure 223 suggest that this feature was constr
Associated features
Unknown; wall abuts pilaster (Feature 2) on south; rest atop bench (Feature 7); wall: other (Feature 4) may be a similar construction on the east bench (Feature 4) of Structure 223.
Excavation procedure
Exposed during excavation of Backhoe Trench 218; in Segment 1.
Portion excavated
Unknown; only a small portion exposed in Segment 1.
Horizontal location
Western portion of Segment 1.
Vertical location
Rests on bench surface (Feature 7).
Construction
Eight courses of sandstone were set in mortar and laid atop bench surface, one-to-two stones wide; location of feature suggests constructed after Structure 223 had burned and collapsed.
Remodeling/ modification
No
Thermal alteration
No
Sooting
No
Sealed
No
Preservation
Good.
Degree of preservation
Upper stones disturbed by backhoe trenching.
Shape in plan view
Actual:  rectangular.
Inferred: 
Shape in cross section
Actual:  rectangular.
Inferred: 
Shape comments
Shape of complete feature unknown.
Dimensions
 
Actual
Complete?
Inferred
Comments
Length
24
No
Width
No
Height
44
Yes
In profile.
Depth
No
Stratigraphy
Stratum
Interpretation
Inclusions
Disturbance
Color
Texture

Wall: other (Feature 4) Top of page
General description
Coursed masonry wall that appears to have been constructed atop bench.
Use history
Appears to be a feature constructed after Structure 223 was burned and roof had collapsed; inferred to be similar in form to Feature 3 located on west end of Structure 223; exposure of Feature 4 was so limited that most information cannot be assessed.
Associated features
Unknown; pilaster (Feature 5) to south; wall: other (Feature 3) may be a similar construction on west bench of Structure 223.
Excavation procedure
Exposed during excavation of Backhoe Trench 218; in Segment 1.
Portion excavated
Top exposed by trenching so it is visible in plan; feature itself not exposed.
Horizontal location
East edge of Structure 223 exposed in Backhoe Trench 218; Segment 1.
Vertical location
Inferred to rest on bench (Feature 6).
Construction
Cannot assess.
Remodeling/ modification
Yes. Cannot assess.
Thermal alteration
Yes. Cannot assess.
Sooting
Yes. Cannot assess.
Sealed
Yes. Cannot assess
Preservation
Poor.
Degree of preservation
Shape in plan view
Actual:  unknown.
Inferred: 
Shape in cross section
Actual:  unknown.
Inferred: 
Shape comments
Cannot assess.
Dimensions
 
Actual
Complete?
Inferred
Comments
Length
No
Cannot assess.
Width
No
Cannot assess.
Height
No
Cannot assess.
Depth
No
Stratigraphy
Stratum
Interpretation
Inclusions
Disturbance
Color
Texture

Pilaster: not further specified (Feature 5) Top of page
General description
Coursed masonry pilaster constructed atop bench (Feature 6) of Structure 223.
Use history
Pilaster assumed to have been used to support roof of Structure 223 from time of its initial construction until abandonment.
Associated features
Pilaster (Feature 2) and bench (Feature 6).
Excavation procedure
Exposed during excavation of Backhoe Trench 218; in Segment 1.
Portion excavated
Approximately the northern half of pilaster.
Horizontal location
East edge of Structure 223 exposed in Backhoe Trench 218; Segment 1.
Vertical location
Rests atop bench surface, about 88 cm above Surface 1.
Construction
Coursed masonry placed atop bench surface.
Remodeling/ modification
Yes. Too little to assess.
Thermal alteration
Yes. Too little to assess.
Sooting
Yes. Too little to assess.
Sealed
No
Preservation
Poor.
Degree of preservation
Disturbed during backhoe trenching.
Shape in plan view
Actual:  rectangular.
Inferred: 
Shape in cross section
Actual:  rectangular.
Inferred:  square.
Shape comments
Dimensions
 
Actual
Complete?
Inferred
Comments
Length
26
No
Measured north-south.
Width
11
No
Measured east-west.
Height
4
No
Depth
No
Stratigraphy
Stratum
Interpretation
Inclusions
Disturbance
Color
Texture

Bench: not further specified (Feature 6) Top of page
General description
Bench surface.
Use history
Bench used for pilaster support and for storage; Feature 4 was constructed atop bench but it is not clear if this was before or after structure abandonment and collapse.
Associated features
Wall: other (Feature 4) and pilaster (Feature 5).
Excavation procedure
Exposed by Backhoe Trench 218; in Segment 1.
Portion excavated
Only 6-7 cm were exposed at the feature edge.
Horizontal location
Eastern portion of Backhoe Trench 218; east edge of structure; in Segment 1.
Vertical location
About 84 cm above Surface 1; at 96.99 m.
Construction
Pit for structure was excavated into undisturbed native sediment, bench face and edge were lined with sandstone set in mortar, face was later plastered.
Remodeling/ modification
No
Thermal alteration
No
Sooting
No
Sealed
No
Preservation
Excellent.
Degree of preservation
Shape in plan view
Actual:  unknown.
Inferred:  rectangular.
Shape in cross section
Actual:  unknown.
Inferred:  rectangular.
Shape comments
Dimensions
 
Actual
Complete?
Inferred
Comments
Length
44
No
Extends north into profile.
Width
30
Yes
Measured to upper lining wall.
Height
84
Yes
Above floor.
Depth
No
Stratigraphy
Stratum
Interpretation
Inclusions
Disturbance
Color
Texture

Bench: not further specified (Feature 7) Top of page
General description
Bench surface.
Use history
Pilaster (Feature 2) constructed atop bench; Feature 3 (Wall: other) was constructed atop bench but it is not clear if this was before or after structure abandonment and collapse.
Associated features
Wall: other (Feature 3) and pilaster (Feature 2).
Excavation procedure
Exposed in Backhoe Trench 218; in Segment 1.
Portion excavated
Only 6-7 cm were exposed at the feature edge.
Horizontal location
West end of Backhoe Trench 218; west edge of structure; in Segment 1.
Vertical location
About 87 cm above Surface 1; at 96.99 m.
Construction
Pit for structure was excavated into undisturbed native sediment, bench face and edge were lined with sandstone set in mortar, face was later plastered.
Remodeling/ modification
No
Thermal alteration
No
Sooting
No
Sealed
No
Preservation
Excellent.
Degree of preservation
Shape in plan view
Actual:  unknown.
Inferred:  rectangular.
Shape in cross section
Actual:  other.
Inferred:  rectangular.
Shape comments
Dimensions
 
Actual
Complete?
Inferred
Comments
Length
26
No
Extends north into profile.
Width
28
Yes
Measured to upper lining wall.
Height
87
Yes
Above floor.
Depth
No
Stratigraphy
Stratum
Interpretation
Inclusions
Disturbance
Color
Texture