Structure 304, subterranean kiva

Features


Bench segment #6 (Feature 1) Top of page
General description
Southern recess of a late Pueblo III, masonry-lined kiva.
Use history
Used for pilaster support, and probably for storage. At least one vessel was left on the surface. Bench was covered with burned roof fall when at least a portion of the roof burned.
Associated features
None.
Excavation procedure
Recorded in provenience data, which are available through the "Field Data: Provenience Data" query in the multisite research database.
Portion excavated
Only the portions within units 110N 104E and 112N 104E, and a small, irregular area outside southeast corner of unit 112N 104E called Segment 1 that was excavated in order to remove a whole vessel that was exposed in this corner.
Horizontal location
Northwest corner of unit 110N 104E, and southeast corner of unit 112N 104E; kiva is just north of northwest end of butte.
Vertical location
99 cm above kiva floor.
Construction
Orange clay bench surface with ashy gray film observed; clay probably applied over construction fill and vent tunnel construction, but this was not observed.
Remodeling/ modification
Yes. No additional surface noted.
Thermal alteration
Not Recorded
Sooting
Not Recorded
Sealed
No
Preservation
Good.
Degree of preservation
Bench surface in unit 110N 104 E subsided when ventilator tunnel beneath collapsed.
Shape in plan view
Actual:  unknown.
Inferred:  other.
Shape in cross section
Actual:  unknown.
Inferred:  other.
Shape comments
Plan is probably trapezoidal; cross section is a straight line.
Dimensions
 
Actual
Complete?
Inferred
Comments
Length
No
Map 487, 528.
Width
No
Map 487, 528.
Height
103
Yes
Above kiva floor; Map 252.
Depth
No
Stratigraphy
Stratum
Interpretation
Inclusions
Disturbance
Color
Texture
1
Kiva roof fall
charcoal fragments, adobe nodules
Not Recorded
grayish
ashy

Ventilation system (Feature 2) Top of page
General description
Ventilator system in kiva.
Use history
Unknown; inferred to exist based on subsidence of southern recess surface in 1 x 1 excavation unit.
Associated features
Hearth (Feature 6), deflector (Feature 5).
Excavation procedure
Recorded in provenience data, which are available through the "Field Data: Provenience Data" query in the multisite research database.
Portion excavated
Uppermost few centimeters of section of collapsed tunnel that was within the 1 x 1.
Horizontal location
Beneath southern recess surface in 1 x 1unit; kiva is just north of northwest end of butte.
Vertical location
Beneath southern recess.
Construction
Unknown.
Remodeling/ modification
Unknown
Thermal alteration
Unknown
Sooting
Unknown
Sealed
Unknown
Preservation
Degree of preservation
Unknown.
Shape in plan view
Actual:  unknown.
Inferred:  other.
Shape in cross section
Actual:  unknown.
Inferred:  rectangular.
Shape comments
Cross section is probably L-shaped.
Dimensions
 
Actual
Complete?
Inferred
Comments
Length
No
Not excavated; Map 487, 528.
Width
No
Not excavated; Map 487, 528.
Height
No
Not excavated.
Depth
No
Not excavated.
Stratigraphy
Stratum
Interpretation
Inclusions
Disturbance
Color
Texture

Pilaster #6 (Feature 3) Top of page
General description
Masonry-column pilaster in late Pueblo III kiva.
Use history
Probably used to support kiva roof; top damaged when roof was destroyed.
Associated features
Bench 6 (Feature 1).
Excavation procedure
Feature was exposed and documented, but not excavated or dismantled.
Portion excavated
Only the portion within the 1 x 1 unit was exposed.
Horizontal location
In east half of 1 x 1 excavation unit; kiva is just north of northwest end of butte.
Vertical location
Rests on bench surface.
Construction
(From observations of west and south faces only) This feature was constructed of pecked blocks. Four courses survive at time of excavation. The front edge of the pilaster was set back from bench face as much as 10 cm. No plaster was observed.
Remodeling/ modification
No
Thermal alteration
Not Recorded
Sooting
Not Recorded
Sealed
No
Preservation
Good.
Degree of preservation
Top course is uneven, suggesting original top was destroyed.
Shape in plan view
Actual:  unknown.
Inferred:  rectangular.
Shape in cross section
Actual:  unknown.
Inferred:  other.
Shape comments
Plan is probably trapezoidal.
Dimensions
 
Actual
Complete?
Inferred
Comments
Length
No
Map 487, 528.
Width
No
Map 487, 528.
Height
65
No
Above bench surface; 4 courses are preserved.
Depth
No
Stratigraphy
Stratum
Interpretation
Inclusions
Disturbance
Color
Texture

Human remains occurrence , HRO 6 (Feature 4) (NOTE: Additional information on human remains is archived at the Anasazi Heritage Center, Dolores, Colorado.) Top of page
General description
Concentration of mostly disarticulated human remains.
Use history
See Kuckelman et al. 2002*2.
Associated features
Excavation procedure
Bones were point-located and mapped as they were encountered.
Portion excavated
Only the portion within the 1 x 2 excavation unit.
Horizontal location
South and east of the deflector in this kiva; kiva is just north of the northwest end of the butte.
Vertical location
In the upper part of roof fall.
Construction
Feature was not constructed--it was deposited.
Remodeling/ modification
Thermal alteration
Sooting
No
Sealed
No
Preservation
Good.
Degree of preservation
Bones were not in pristine condition, a few appeared weathered or carnivore-damaged.
Shape in plan view
Actual:  irregular.
Inferred:  irregular.
Shape in cross section
Actual:  irregular.
Inferred:  irregular.
Shape comments
Dimensions
 
Actual
Complete?
Inferred
Comments
Length
122
No
East-west; Map 528.
Width
110
No
North-south.
Height
No
Depth
40
Yes
Stratigraphy
Stratum
Interpretation
Inclusions
Disturbance
Color
Texture

Deflector (Feature 5) Top of page
General description
Coursed-masonry deflector in late Pueblo III kiva.
Use history
Used to deflect air from ventilator-tunnel opening away from hearth; top damaged when roof collapsed after abandonment.
Associated features
Hearth (Feature 6) ventilator system (Feature 2).
Excavation procedure
Deflector was exposed and documented, but not excavated or dismantled.
Portion excavated
All exposed.
Horizontal location
South half of 1 x 1 unit 112N 103E; kiva is just north of northwest end of butte.
Vertical location
Kiva floor.
Construction
Deflector is a compound, semicoursed masonry wall constructed with shaped and unshaped sandstone blocks and rocks. Many (60 percent) of the stones are shaped, and 30 percent of those are also pecked. The corner stones are shaped to right angles. Approxima
Remodeling/ modification
No
Thermal alteration
No
Sooting
Yes. Plaster is very lightly sooted.
Sealed
No
Preservation
Excellent.
Degree of preservation
Shape in plan view
Actual:  rectangular.
Inferred:  rectangular.
Shape in cross section
Actual:  rectangular.
Inferred:  rectangular.
Shape comments
Dimensions
 
Actual
Complete?
Inferred
Comments
Length
67
Yes
Northeast-southwest; Map 487, 526.
Width
28
Yes
Northwest-southeast; Map 487, 526.
Height
60
Yes
5 courses survive.
Depth
No
Stratigraphy
Stratum
Interpretation
Inclusions
Disturbance
Color
Texture

Hearth (Feature 6) Top of page
General description
Central hearth in kiva.
Use history
Used as hearth on early floor. Rim was replastered when the kiva floor was replastered. The hearth continued to be used and was left open when the structure was abandoned. Kiva roof fall filled the upper part of the pit.
Associated features
Deflector (Feature 5), ventilator system (Feature 2).
Excavation procedure
Recorded in provenience data, which are available through the "Field Data: Provenience Data" query in the multisite research database.
Portion excavated
Only the portion within the 1 x 1 excavation unit.
Horizontal location
Along west edge of 1 x 1 unit; kiva is just north of northwest end of butte.
Vertical location
Kiva floor.
Construction
Excavated into bedrock, then lined with adobe.
Remodeling/ modification
Yes. Hearth rim was replastered when surrounding kiva floor was replastered sometime during use of structure.
Thermal alteration
Yes. Rim, walls and floor burned very dark reddish brown.
Sooting
No
Sealed
No
Preservation
Excellent.
Degree of preservation
Shape in plan view
Actual:  unknown.
Inferred: 
Shape in cross section
Actual:  unknown.
Inferred: 
Shape comments
Dimensions
 
Actual
Complete?
Inferred
Comments
Length
56
No
North-south; Map 487.
Width
32
No
East-west.
Height
No
Depth
22
No
Map 252.
Stratigraphy
Stratum
Interpretation
Inclusions
Disturbance
Color
Texture
1
Kiva roof fall
few charcoal nodules, nodules of construction material, abundant gravels
none
reddish yellow
sand
2
Use associated
charcoal flecking
none
light gray
ash