Structure 113, subterranean kiva

Features


Hearth (Feature 1) Top of page
General description
Central hearth for Structure 113.
Use history
Hearth was used throughout the use-life of Structure 113; used for heat, cooking, light, and ritual use.
Associated features
Feature 2, deflector.
Excavation procedure
The boundaries of the hearth were defined; the southeastern 1/4 was then excavated with a trowel and a brush as a full cut. 18 liters of ash were collected for flotation analysis.
Portion excavated
Entire outline of hearth exposed; southeastern 1/4 excavated.
Horizontal location
North-central portion of Structure 113, 2-x-2-m unit 496.8N 509.7E.
Vertical location
Top of hearth is at Surface 1 or 95.41 meters.
Construction
A basin-shaped pit was excavated from Surface 2 into undisturbed native sediment; the pit was then lined with adobe and a adobe hearth collar was constructed at Surface 2 and again at Surface 1.
Remodeling/ modification
Yes. A second hearth collar was applied to the hearth when a second surface was applied to the structure floor.
Thermal alteration
Sooting
No
Sealed
Yes. Sealed with ash.
Preservation
Excellent.
Degree of preservation
Shape in plan view
Actual:  basin-shaped.
Inferred: 
Shape in cross section
Actual:  round.
Inferred: 
Shape comments
Dimensions
 
Actual
Complete?
Inferred
Comments
Length
100
Yes
Measured north-south.
Width
71
No
Measured east-west.
Height
No
Depth
34
Yes
Stratigraphy
Stratum
Interpretation
Inclusions
Disturbance
Color
Texture
1
Roof sediments
Ash; charcoal flecks
None
Reddish brown
Clay loam
2
Ash from the last use of the hearth before structure abandonment
Charcoal; artifacts
None
Gray
Ash

Deflector (Feature 2) Top of page
General description
Slab deflector in Structure 113.
Use history
Feature used to deflect air from the ventilation shaft around the hearth for the entire use-life of Structure 113.
Associated features
Feature 1, hearth.
Excavation procedure
Not excavated.
Portion excavated
Entire deflector was exposed.
Horizontal location
South-central portion of Structure 113, 2-x-2-m unit 496.8N 509.7E.
Vertical location
Base of deflector goes into Surface 1 at 95.72 meters.
Construction
A sandstone slab was quarried and then vertically placed into the sub-floor surface of Structure 113. It appears to have been anchored with blocky pieces of sandstone and abundant adobe mortar.
Remodeling/ modification
No
Thermal alteration
No
Sooting
Yes. Sooting on both faces of deflector.
Sealed
No
Preservation
Excellent.
Degree of preservation
Shape in plan view
Actual:  rectangular.
Inferred: 
Shape in cross section
Actual:  rectangular.
Inferred: 
Shape comments
Dimensions
 
Actual
Complete?
Inferred
Comments
Length
78
Yes
Width
7
Yes
Height
75
Yes
Depth
No
Stratigraphy
Stratum
Interpretation
Inclusions
Disturbance
Color
Texture

Bench: not further specified (Feature 3) Top of page
General description
Coursed masonry bench.
Use history
The original bench used throughout the use-life of Structure 113.
Associated features
Feature 6, pilaster Feature 5, vent opening.
Excavation procedure
The portion of the bench (Segment 1) within the 1-x-2-m unit was exposed by removing fill with a trowel and a brush.
Portion excavated
All of the portion of the bench (Segment 1) within 1-x-2-m unit 495.8N 509.7E was exposed.
Horizontal location
Southern portion of 1-x-2-m unit 495.8N 509.7E.
Vertical location
Top of bench is at approximately 96.29 m.
Construction
Shaped sandstone blocks were constructed in a column and mortar was placed in the joints. The surface was then plastered over with adobe to create a smooth finish.
Remodeling/ modification
No
Thermal alteration
No
Sooting
No
Sealed
No
Preservation
Excellent.
Degree of preservation
Shape in plan view
Actual: 
Inferred:  rectangular.
Shape in cross section
Actual: 
Inferred:  rectangular.
Shape comments
Dimensions
 
Actual
Complete?
Inferred
Comments
Length
No
Width
No
Height
78
Yes
Vertical measurement from Surface 1 to the top of the bench.
Depth
No
Stratigraphy
Stratum
Interpretation
Inclusions
Disturbance
Color
Texture

Ventilator tunnel (Feature 4) Top of page
General description
Unknown. Not excavated.
Use history
Unknown. Not excavated.
Associated features
Excavation procedure
Unknown. Not excavated.
Portion excavated
Horizontal location
Vertical location
Construction
Unknown. Not excavated.
Remodeling/ modification
Thermal alteration
Sooting
Sealed
Preservation
Degree of preservation
Shape in plan view
Actual: 
Inferred: 
Shape in cross section
Actual: 
Inferred: 
Shape comments
Dimensions
 
Actual
Complete?
Inferred
Comments
Length
No
Unknown. Not excavated.
Width
No
Height
No
Depth
No
Stratigraphy
Stratum
Interpretation
Inclusions
Disturbance
Color
Texture

Pilaster: not further specified (Feature 5) Top of page
General description
Coursed masonry pilaster.
Use history
Pilaster used to support wood roof beams.
Associated features
Feature 3, bench.
Excavation procedure
Not excavated, just exposed.
Portion excavated
The western eastern edge of the pilaster was exposed (Segment 1) within the 1-x-2-m unit 495.8N 509.7E.
Horizontal location
In southwest corner of 1-x-2-m unit 495.8N 509.7E.
Vertical location
Bottom of feature is at Surface 1 on the bench, or approximately 95.83 m.
Construction
Shaped sandstone blocks were stacked in a rectangular column; mortar was placed in the joints.
Remodeling/ modification
Unknown
Thermal alteration
No
Sooting
No
Sealed
No
Preservation
Excellent.
Degree of preservation
Shape in plan view
Actual:  rectangular.
Inferred:  rectangular.
Shape in cross section
Actual: 
Inferred: 
Shape comments
Dimensions
 
Actual
Complete?
Inferred
Comments
Length
No
Width
No
Height
52
No
Vertical measurement from the bench surface to the top of the pilaster.
Depth
No
Stratigraphy
Stratum
Interpretation
Inclusions
Disturbance
Color
Texture