Structure 6-S, aboveground kiva

Features


Hearth (Feature 1) Top of page
General description
Slab-lined hearth of kiva.
Use history
Primary thermal feature of kiva that was probably used for heating, cooking, and lighting; it is unclear if this hearth was in use when the earliest kiva floor (Surface 2) was in use because Surface 2 was only exposed in a small test window that was not c
Associated features
Deflector (F-2).
Excavation procedure
Exposed section of hearth was bisected in half. North section was excavated by stratigraphic deposits, profile was drawn, and then south section was excavated by stratigraphic deposits. The attempt to collect archaeomagnetic samples failed because the ado
Portion excavated
Portion within excavation unit; slightly more than half of the hearth; west half exposed and the remainder the feature extends beyond the excavation unit to the east.
Horizontal location
Immediately north of southeast corner of Structure 6-S, Segment 1 and deflector (Feature 2).
Vertical location
Hearth originates from Surface 1.
Construction
Pit excavated into subfloor deposits until bedrock was reached; pit initially lined with stones and then adobe was applied around the stones; base of pit was not lined, defined by bedrock.
Remodeling/ modification
No
Thermal alteration
Yes. Stones and adobe on sides and rim of pit are fire-reddened.
Sooting
No
Sealed
Yes. A total of five fire-reddened stones, including a possible hatchway slab, were found resting on top of the hearth; the burning on the stones suggests they were placed over the hearth while there was still a fire; stones may have been placed over the heart
Preservation
Good.
Degree of preservation
Sides are in excellent condition; rim is in poor condition as a result of natural deterioration.
Shape in plan view
Actual:  rectangular.
Inferred: 
Shape in cross section
Actual:  unknown.
Inferred:  round.
Shape comments
Dimensions
 
Actual
Complete?
Inferred
Comments
Length
52
Yes
North-south.
Width
33
No
52
East-west; extends beyond excavation unit to the east; inferred width was determined by assuming that the hearth is round and the east-west dimension is the same as the north-south dimension.
Height
No
Depth
12
Yes
Stratigraphy
Stratum
Interpretation
Inclusions
Disturbance
Color
Texture
1
Postabandonment roof fall from kiva; identical to Stratum 2 in the rest of the excavation unit; thin, discontinous stratum limited to the area immediately west of the east profile
Gray clay nodules, adobe nodules
Minimal root disturbance
Red brown
Silty clay loam
2
Primary refuse; ash is less compact and darker than Stratum 3
Charcoal chunks, small adobe pieces, small sandstone pieces (2-4 cm)
Minimal root disturbance
Gray
Ash
3
Primary refuse; more compact and lighter in color than Stratum 2; may represent earlier ash that was not cleaned out of the hearth before subsequent fires
Charcoal chunks, small adobe pieces, small sandstone pieces (2-4 cm)
Minimal root disturbance
White and gray
Ash

Deflector (Feature 2) Top of page
General description
Well-constructed masonry deflector.
Use history
Used in conjunction with the hearth and a presumed ventilation system; helped to distribute air around the hearth.
Associated features
Hearth (F-1).
Excavation procedure
Not excavated; only exposed.
Portion excavated
Portion within excavation unit; approximately the west two-thirds of the deflector was exposed; extends beyond excavation unit to the south and the east.
Horizontal location
Southeast corner of Structure 6-S, Segment 1; immediately south of hearth (Feature 1).
Vertical location
Base of deflector was not exposed, it is not clear what surface the deflector is associated with; deflector extends below Surface 1.
Construction
Deflector was built before Surface 1 was laid; constructed of sandstone and mortar; full-coursed wall (see masonry screens for detailed description of architecture).
Remodeling/ modification
No
Thermal alteration
Yes. Three stones on the north face of the deflector are fire-blackened and fire-reddened; probably resulted from use of the nearby hearth.
Sooting
No
Sealed
No
Preservation
Excellent.
Degree of preservation
Shape in plan view
Actual:  unknown.
Inferred:  rectangular.
Shape in cross section
Actual:  unknown.
Inferred:  rectangular.
Shape comments
Dimensions
 
Actual
Complete?
Inferred
Comments
Length
50
No
East-west; deflector extends beyond excavation unit to the east.
Width
28
No
North-south; deflector extends beyond the excavation unit to the south.
Height
28
No
From Surface 1 to top of deflector; deflector is believed ot have once stood taller; deflector extends below Surface 1, but the base was not exposed.
Depth
No
Stratigraphy
Stratum
Interpretation
Inclusions
Disturbance
Color
Texture

Pit: not further specified (Feature 3) Top of page
General description
Small, shallow informal pit.
Use history
Purpose of pit unknown; ashy deposit in pit is most likely an incidental deposit instead of an intentional one; pit not large or deep enough to hold refuse; constructed at about the same time as the kiva floor (Surface 1).
Associated features
None.
Excavation procedure
Entire portion of exposed feature was excavated at one time by stratigraphic deposits.
Portion excavated
Portion within excavaion unit; approximately the east half of the pit; pit extends beyond excavation to the west.
Horizontal location
North half of Structure 6-S, Segment 1, along west profile; northwest of hearth (Feature 1).
Vertical location
Pit originates from Surface 1.
Construction
Pit excavated into subfloor deposits and then lined with adobe; pit was probably lined at the same time the floor was laid, because the adobe that defines the floor extends into the pit without any interruptions.
Remodeling/ modification
No
Thermal alteration
No
Sooting
No
Sealed
No
Preservation
Excellent.
Degree of preservation
Shape in plan view
Actual:  basin-shaped.
Inferred: 
Shape in cross section
Actual:  unknown.
Inferred:  round.
Shape comments
Dimensions
 
Actual
Complete?
Inferred
Comments
Length
12
Yes
North-south.
Width
6
No
12
East-west; pit extends beyond excavation unit to the west; inferred width was determined by assuming that the pit is round and the east-west dimension is the same as the north-south dimension.
Height
No
Depth
3
Yes
Stratigraphy
Stratum
Interpretation
Inclusions
Disturbance
Color
Texture
1
Pit could have been intentionally or incidentally filled; it is more likely that the pit incidentally filled because this deposit is not pure ash and the pit is too shallow to hold much refuse; could have filled when the kiva floor was being cleaned
Small charcoal flecks, one small sandstone piece (4 cm)
None
Gray brown
Ashy silt
2
Natural deposit that probably accumulated during occupation; could be residue from floor that got blown into the kiva
None
None
Red
Sand